- There is an increasing need for technology solutions to increase self-empowerment and self-management of chronic patients. Nutrition and physical activity are important parts of a healthy lifestyle and management of diabetes. Physical activity greatly influences blood glucose levels, therefore for type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients is important to adapt their diet and therapy in order to avoid exercise-induced hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia. Existing guidelines for minimizing the risk of hypoglycemia are not well-defined and it represents one of the major barriers to physical activity and it limits volitional exercise in T1D patients.
- To overcome this problem in T1D subjects, an algorithm called ECRES was proposed to estimate patient-exercise tailored glucose supplement required to maintain safe blood glucose levels during physical activity (Francescato et al, Med Sci Sports Exerc 2011).
- The algorithm is based on patient’s habitual therapy and diet, and accounts for his/her insulin sensitivity (Francescato et al, J Diabetes Sci Technol 2019). Actual exercise intensity and duration, patient’s physical fitness level, and the timing of the activity relative to the last insulin bolus, are used by the algorithm, allowing to estimate the carbohydrates supplement for any time of day the exercise is performed.
- The method was successfully tested during short (Francescato et al, Curr Diabetes Rev 2011) and prolonged exercise (Francescato et al, PLoS ONE 2015); Buoite Stella et al, Can J Diab 2016), estimating minor amounts of CHO supplement with respect to a classical approach, while maintaining glycaemia within safe levels (Ajčević et al, IFMBE Proceedings 2019).